Creativity wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creativity

Creativity is a mental process involving the discovery of new ideas or concepts,  or new associations of the existing ideas or concepts, fueled by the process of either conscious or unconscious insight.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creativity_techniques

Creativity techniques are methods that encourage original thoughts and divergent thinking. Some techniques require groups of two or more people while other techniques can be accomplished alone. These methods include word games, written exercises and different types of improvisation. Creativity techniques can be used to develop new materials for artistic purposes or to solve problems.

Most creativity techniques use associations between the goal (or the problem), the current state (which may be an imperfect solution to the problem), and some stimulus (possibly selected randomly). There is an analogy between many creativity techniques and methods of evolutionary computation.